18.12.13 / Uncategorized / Author: Wallace / Comments Off on Aristotle
Later, ARISTOTLE (384 to 322 AC), also dealed with the natural right in several its works, introducing very interesting factors to the concept, reason why it has been considered by good part of scholars like " the father of the right natural". In his " ETHICS To NICOMANO" it affirms that " straight politician a part is natural and the other legal one. It is Natural what everywhere he has the same force and does not depend on the diverse opinions of the men. It is legal what in principle he can be indifferently of such way or the opposite way but that stops of being indifferent since the Law is resuelto". For him definitively the natural right is a part of the effective right, which denies all character to him of ideal, conceiving their source in which is the things in themselves, that is to say the nature. But it was not but until the coming of the school of the STOICS, founded by ZENON (336 to 264 a.C.), that changes the concept radically and the natural right like " is conceived; opinion of the straight reason of hombre". As well that straight reason " participa" of the divine reason that she is the one that governs to the world. The nature is placed in center of the philosophical conception of the school, like a governing principle that penetrated all the universe and it was identified with God.
That governing principle era of especially rational character. The same Zenn thought that the universal one was made up of one " sustancia" that it was not more than the Reason. The natural right, by all means, was identical to the law of the reason. There is a right common based on the effective reason and in all the cosmos, reason why it must not have cities states. The stoics founded a cosmopolitan philosophy based on the equality and freedom of all the men, with pretension of a universal state where the men lived guidances by the principles on the divine reason.
13.12.13 / Uncategorized / Author: Wallace / Comments Off on Construction History
Adam Schaff Dhiogo Jose Caetano Graduating of State UEG-University of Gois Word-Key: History, Construction, Interpretation, Collingwood, Croce, Solipsismo, Laws, Subjetivismo, Positivismo and Schaff. From the analysis of the text of Adam Schaff we can perceive that the historical facts if construct throughout the time (positivismo), depending on the action of the historian for organizes-l and values-l. But the historian cannot judge the facts. The antipositivistas show to the distinction between historical fact and historical event, and fit the historian the paper to understand the facts, working with the interpretation and construction of the facts. Such work makes a relation with total history, not existing the imparcialidade, laws and rules for many historicistas. In elapsing of this historiogrfica construction we can find a diversity of ideas as, Ranke which affirms that the historian must count the history of the past, as happened; also we must observe the ideals of Collingwood Croce that affirms that all history is present, therefore the historian in its process of reconstruction of the past uses its vision contemporary. If history is interpretation, imagination and construction can notice that the historian places its point of view appearing the subjetivismo and the judge of value, therefore the historian chooses what it is important for and does not stop history.
Schaff agrees to the presentistas that the historians must be active in history; but it criticizes the extreme subjetivismo, therefore the reality exists independent of the action of the citizen, not being the citizen that thinks and imagines the reality. Schaff also says that the being of the history or the nature of the being, this on antolgica history where if it constructs to history resgetai that it means history event and fact, which if summarizes in the gesta rum, where and as it knew the events; in this point, critical Schaff the presentistas saying that they mix the antolgicos events and neoseolgico, falling in the solipsismo. When we speak of Collingwood, we can see the concern with history imagination, that stops it is a form of the historian to construct the history of the past. However we can perceive the shock enters the vision of the positivistas that uses science while nature for affirms that in history the laws and the historicistas that leave clearly that history as science spirit does not have laws. Therefore Schaff in the sample that stops constructing the history of the past we must use the imagination, however our imagination cannot occupy the reality of the past. Being clearly that the historical facts are something that goes beyond the understanding human being, and it does not have place that it is enough to support such reality of this idea. In way to this process we can perceive that the positivistas, are groups that defend its ideas with a vision, more restricted, that is, a movement that uses rules scientific and natural methods to prove its thesis and antitheses; placing the citizen as the being most important in history; already historicistas, work with a totalizante vision, without rules and laws, searching to understand and to interpret the past, being an appendix of history. However many historians had confused such idea, therefore both are current distinct, but linked one complementing to another one, however opposition exists, why nor one of theoretical chains if neutralizes ahead of the other.
13.12.13 / Uncategorized / Author: Wallace / Comments Off on Learning a Language
Tags: education, Foreign Languages ??
If you set about learning the language, there are several things you should do before you begin the process of learning. Of course, choose a program to buy books and CDs and hire a teacher you yourself will be able to, and we have repeatedly discussed these issues. But here's an important point, which would be worth thinking more before all other actions. Who is responsible for your training? Or rather, who is responsible for achieving your results? And who is to blame If no results? You thought about it? People who are disappointed, such as foreign language courses, tend to blame the failure of teachers to school. Most often gets is, of course, teachers.
Students go to language classes, because the teacher or boring, or hard to explain or not explain, or does nothing, which explains but does not give speaking practice. Leave when the teacher does not correct errors. Go, they feel that the teacher is too nagging and constantly adjusts. You can always find one or another flaw in the teacher, which will allow you to withdraw from courses and another six months with a clear conscience defer language learning. However, on second thought, it becomes clear that teachers – only your guides to order study materials which you have chosen (or for you to choose a language school). If the teacher has at least a basic qualifications, he will guide you on these materials – perform with you all the exercises, read all the texts to work out all the dialogues.