Many times, parents and teachers try to reason with young children why they have not given a pencil to a teammate or why they have assaulted another, assuming that the child understand them exactly, but it is this so? Based on the theories and the research of the Piaget, Kohlberg studied moral reasoning development, presenting to children, adolescents and adults with series of hypothetical stories posed ethical dilemmas. To examine the responses that people gave to these dilemmas, Kohlberg found three levels of moral reasoning: the preconventional, conventional, and post-conventional, with 2 pairs at each level. The pre-convencional level in the preconventional level the subject puts the emphasis in obtaining rewards and avoid punishments. In the first phase of this level the most important value is the obedience to authority to avoid punishment for own interests but in the second phase there is a second motivation, conviction of being good with others makes others they are good with me, is more a Jack give-and-take that the first part. Children of the pre-convencional level lend toys to his companions then provide them is them also; the little ones can that not to bite down his nursery companions because their parents say that biting is wrong. The conventional level in the conventional level there is the emphasis on social norms. Thus, in the first phase of this level runs good behaviour to please others and obtain his approval while the second part makes feel the individual as part of the group which adheres to and obeys the laws laid down by the society.
Children who are this level are not cheating because they know that if they do them, their peers will not allow more play with them. On the other hand, the elderly can not to do traps so peers themselves can say. Finally, in the post-conventional level post-convencional level the emphasis is on moral principles. So phase one where reigns the concept of the contract gives social according to which must respect the rules of society because they exist in everyone’s benefit and are established by mutual agreement. And finally the second phase is that prevailing universal ethical principles that determine good and evil are products of the reflections of each individual and which can come into conflict for example: with the principles of the society.
Those found at this stage, don’t lie because they know the repercussions that has the lie, for which both lie for which is lied. According to Kohlberg people ascend the stages of moral hierarchy as they mature, although the process is slow. In fact I thought that most of the children of 10 years (primary Ed) do not reason beyond phase 3 and that many adults do not reach the phase 5 and 6.