Adam Schaff Dhiogo Jose Caetano Graduating of State UEG-University of Gois Word-Key: History, Construction, Interpretation, Collingwood, Croce, Solipsismo, Laws, Subjetivismo, Positivismo and Schaff. From the analysis of the text of Adam Schaff we can perceive that the historical facts if construct throughout the time (positivismo), depending on the action of the historian for organizes-l and values-l. But the historian cannot judge the facts. The antipositivistas show to the distinction between historical fact and historical event, and fit the historian the paper to understand the facts, working with the interpretation and construction of the facts. Such work makes a relation with total history, not existing the imparcialidade, laws and rules for many historicistas. In elapsing of this historiogrfica construction we can find a diversity of ideas as, Ranke which affirms that the historian must count the history of the past, as happened; also we must observe the ideals of Collingwood Croce that affirms that all history is present, therefore the historian in its process of reconstruction of the past uses its vision contemporary. If history is interpretation, imagination and construction can notice that the historian places its point of view appearing the subjetivismo and the judge of value, therefore the historian chooses what it is important for and does not stop history.
Schaff agrees to the presentistas that the historians must be active in history; but it criticizes the extreme subjetivismo, therefore the reality exists independent of the action of the citizen, not being the citizen that thinks and imagines the reality. Schaff also says that the being of the history or the nature of the being, this on antolgica history where if it constructs to history resgetai that it means history event and fact, which if summarizes in the gesta rum, where and as it knew the events; in this point, critical Schaff the presentistas saying that they mix the antolgicos events and neoseolgico, falling in the solipsismo. When we speak of Collingwood, we can see the concern with history imagination, that stops it is a form of the historian to construct the history of the past. However we can perceive the shock enters the vision of the positivistas that uses science while nature for affirms that in history the laws and the historicistas that leave clearly that history as science spirit does not have laws. Therefore Schaff in the sample that stops constructing the history of the past we must use the imagination, however our imagination cannot occupy the reality of the past. Being clearly that the historical facts are something that goes beyond the understanding human being, and it does not have place that it is enough to support such reality of this idea. In way to this process we can perceive that the positivistas, are groups that defend its ideas with a vision, more restricted, that is, a movement that uses rules scientific and natural methods to prove its thesis and antitheses; placing the citizen as the being most important in history; already historicistas, work with a totalizante vision, without rules and laws, searching to understand and to interpret the past, being an appendix of history. However many historians had confused such idea, therefore both are current distinct, but linked one complementing to another one, however opposition exists, why nor one of theoretical chains if neutralizes ahead of the other.